September 17, 2019

This is a sequel to my previous post, “The Dark Spectrum I: Goethe and the Imaginative Interrogation of Color,” . In that post, I introduced Goethe’s dark spectrum and ended by proposing that such a spectrum might have something new to offer us. In this installment, I want to make good on that proposal and introduce an often,...

November 19, 2018

Though often dismissed as misguided and ill-informed, in terms of its scientific understanding of the physics of light, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s work on co

August 1, 2018

The question “Do you dream in color?” is one that most of us have probably been asked, or have considered at some point. If so, what would you answer? Do you remember your dreams? Are they in color or are they black and white? If you think about it, there is something slightly odd about this question and its implicit assumptio...

July 19, 2016

Can colors be considered good, or bad or ugly? Maybe not in any absolute sense, but there are instances within which we might assign such adjectives. Lets start with ‘the Good’. There are certainly some colors that can be considered good, or at least better, than others, especially when it comes to utilitarian needs; warning s...

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Refractions is a quarterly column that appears in the newsletter of the Inter-Society Color Council. The ISCC is the principal professional society in the field of color in the United States, encompassing the arts, science and industry. This blog provides an opportunity for comments, questions and feedback on the various articles. The articles are written by Carl Jennings, a member of the ISCC as well as an artist and a Professor of Art at Kap'iolani Community College at the University of Hawai'i.
His artwork can be viewed  at
Information about the ISCC can be found at .
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