February 21, 2020

Fig. 1, Olafur Eliasson, The Weather Project, 2003. Turbine Hall at the Tate Modern (London).

(Image Source: David Firn, Flickr Commons)

Most artists and designers are familiar with color—they work with it just about every day, but very few actually understand the science behind it. Interestingly enough, this is not a requiremen...

April 17, 2016


In the arts, a distinction is often made between looking and seeing. Looking is referred to as a passive act where we simply glance at something with our eyes, whilst seeing is a more active process that involves paying attention to and being aware of what we see. In short, there is a difference between what we look at and wh...

February 1, 2016

Color is a code, a sign, a message –we use it to communicate and in turn it has the power to shape how we think and feel. For the last 500 years or so, black has been making its way to the front of the line as the color of sophistication, culture, power and self-control. On the streets of Paris, New York, London and Tokyo, bla...

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Refractions is a quarterly column that appears in the newsletter of the Inter-Society Color Council. The ISCC is the principal professional society in the field of color in the United States, encompassing the arts, science and industry. This blog provides an opportunity for comments, questions and feedback on the various articles. The articles are written by Carl Jennings, a member of the ISCC as well as an artist and a Professor of Art at Kap'iolani Community College at the University of Hawai'i.
His artwork can be viewed  at www.cjennings.com.
Information about the ISCC can be found at www.iscc.org .
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© 2020 Carl Jennings -  www.cjennings.com